The lead defendant was sentenced to five and a half years for the attack - which lasted for more than two hours - while seven others received sentences of up to four years. Two men received suspended sentences for failing to provide assistance.
Womsn man was acquitted. The victim, who was 18 at the time, had her drink spiked before being attacked in bushes outside the venue. How far-right is Germany's AfD?
Women wanted a more active role and more say-so. The government threw them a bone by establishing a woman's committee of the Council of National Defense, itself only an advisory body, with the redoubtable suffragist Anna Howard Shaw as committee head. She did her excellent best, but without power she could not prevent inefficiency, duplication, and wasted effort. In this situation women continued to launch out in all directions, in efforts ranging from the essential to the ludicrous like making plans to evacuate virgins in case the Germans invaded America.
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Despite absurdities and confusion they accomplished miracles in assuaging the suffering in Europe and making life happier and easier for soldiers and warworkers in the United States and overseas. Besides these volunteers, women rushed into the workplace to manufacture war materiel and to carry on in jobs vacated by men heading for the trenches.
Many women found more interesting work and higher pay than they had ever seen-usually, of course, for only as long as the war lasted. But what about women actually in the military?
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Counting is difficult and in some ways meaningless. Germman thousands of cases, being in or out of the military was a distinction almost without a difference. They greman often did not understand the difference in their status. Few Red Cross nurses realized that by not ing the Army Nurse Corps they were rendering themselves ineligible for benefits should they become disabled, and few Army nurses realized that they were committing themselves indefinitely, rather than for the two-year term common in the Red Cross.
And, despite their own strenuous efforts for regularization, Army and Navy nurses held only a paramilitary status, since the military refused them the rank and benefits that their responsibilities justified.
30 years after German reunification: How gender roles deteriorated to Western standards
No wonder chief nurse Carrie Hall wrote: "I feel much like the fly that has accepted the spider's invitation and finds he can't escape. For the most part the American military refused to accept them, except eventually as civilian contract physicians, without rank. American medical women responded by organizing, funding, and staffing their own hospitals, some of which served with the French military. They also served impromptu and ad hoc.
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Third-year medical student Jean Pattison, spending her vacation with an American Women's Hospital, was pressed into service first for the French Army and then in an American military field hospital at Chateau-Thierry. Rosalie Slaughter Morton, having persuaded the Red Cross to entrust her with taking medical supplies to the Serbian army, seized the chance to volunteer at a French tent hospital for Serbian patients.
The Army al Corps' more than telephone operators thought they were in the Army. At the insistence of General John J. Pershing, these American women were recruited to enable communications within the American Expeditionary Force AEF and with the allied armies. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company sought out American women who spoke French and trained them to operate switchboards. They were then sworn in and issued uniforms. They were subject to military discipline, and some of them served under fire.
But no one else had really given a thought to their military status. The military brass greeted their arrival with cries of relief, sent them gifts, praised their patience and efficiency, treated them like the glamour girls of the AEF, called them "Soldiers of the Switchboard," decorated them, and at war's end forgot about them.
When some of these "hello girls" dared to claim veterans' benefits, they met blank bewilderment, followed by irate refusal. Some of the women persisted, for almost sixty years. Inwhen the youngest of them was nearing eighty, they won recognition as veterans. The occupational therapists mrn physical therapists never did.
They may well have had an equally valid claim, but none among them chose to pursue it. Their professions were just getting off the ground; no one knew much about them, and when they arrived at American or European military bases, officers received them skeptically. They proved themselves by putting their shoulders to whatever wheels needed turning. Wwomen therapists americah as nurses and secretaries during the medical emergencies that followed every "push" when soldiers tried to cross No Man's Land to the enemy trenches.
At least one group of occupational therapists OTshandywomen that they were, won their commanding officer's heart and support by plumbing, making drain pipes from tin cans and lining tubs built by patients for dishwashing. Their carpentry won over the doctors, when the OTs trained patients to fashion desks, bedside tables, chairs, and stools. No question, of course, about the Yeomen Female and the Woman Marines.
From the outset they were officially military members. In Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, contemplating the probable lack of sufficient clerical staff if and when the United States entered the war, asked whether any law prescribed that a yeoman be a man? No, but only because the question of an alternative had been unthinkable.
But by that time americam civilian life, yeoman's work, clerical work, was identified as woman's work. Daniels's question led to the enlistment of 13, women in the Navy and in the Marine Corps. Almost all of them worked in the United States, most in Washington, D. Most did clerical work, but some labored in munitions factories and some as radio electricians.
Ased to special duty, Yeomen F sold liberty bonds in theater aisles. The whole operation was off the cuff. Lighthearted youngsters, most of these Navy and Marine women had fun, according to Marie Broglie, who ed up at eighteen. Yes, she took a physical exam-but not much of one, with a sheet between her body and the examining doctor. Once accepted, she loved her work and the friends she made. She and her friends dated officers: no questions raised about fraternization and rank distinctions.
Wommen and -bred, she lived at home, and her mother let her bring other girls gsrman lived at the barracks home on weekends.
Joy Bright Hancock, later a Navy captain, recalled that the Navy began to distinguish its women as Yeomen Female only after some of them had been mistakenly called up for womeen on shipboard. With the end of the war, the Navy and Marine women departed in peace and without question. In short, actual membership in the military did not define a woman's usefulness in World War I, her duties, her heroism, the dangers she confronted, or the hardships she endured.
Female Salvation Army and YMCA workers, like nurses, encountered hardship and danger: some of them were wounded; some died. All the women who devoted themselves fulltime to war work pioneered, facing unprecedented difficulties.
Many found their own means of service. Although the United States military refused to accredit women journalists, reporter Mary Roberts Rinehart scored a beat with reports from the Belgian front in Paleobotanist Ruth Holden worked in a maternity hospital for refugee women in Russia as general factotum, negotiating with Russian authorities, chivying workmen, interpreting, traveling around Russia to procure equipment and supplies; she died there.
Expatriates Ameeican Stein and Alice B. Toklas delivered hospital supplies in France-Stein driving, though she never learned to back up.